What Is Apache Hadoop?

The Apache Hadoop software library is a framework that allows for the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers using simple programming models. It is designed to scale up from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage. Rather than rely on hardware to deliver high-availability, the library itself is designed to detect and handle failures at the application layer, so delivering a highly-available service on top of a cluster of computers, each of which may be prone to failures.

The project includes these modules:

Hadoop Common: The common utilities that support the other Hadoop modules.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS?): A distributed file system that provides high-throughput access to application data.

Hadoop YARN: A framework for job scheduling and cluster resource management.

Hadoop MapReduce: A YARN-based system for parallel processing of large data sets.

Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)

The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is the primary storage system used by Hadoop applications.

HDFS is a distributed file system that provides high-performance access to data across Hadoop clusters. Like other Hadoop-related technologies, HDFS has become a key tool for managing pools of big data and supporting big data analytics applications.

Because HDFS typically is deployed on low-cost commodity hardware, server failures are common. The file system is designed to be highly fault-tolerant, however, by facilitating the rapid transfer of data between compute nodes and enabling Hadoop systems to continue running if a node fails. That decreases the risk of catastrophic failure, even in the event that numerous nodes fail.

When HDFS takes in data, it breaks the information down into separate pieces and distributes them to different nodes in a cluster, allowing for parallel processing. The file system also copies each piece of data multiple times and distributes the copies to individual nodes, placing at least one copy on a different server rack than the others. As a result, the data on nodes that crash can be found elsewhere within a cluster, which allows processing to continue while the failure is resolved.

HDFS is built to support applications with large data sets, including individual files that reach into the terabytes. It uses a master/slave architecture, with each cluster consisting of a single NameNode that manages file system operations and supporting DataNodes that manage data storage on individual compute nodes.

Apache HBase

Apache HBase is a column-oriented key/value data store built to run on top of the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Hadoop is a framework for handling large datasets in a distributed computing environment..

HBase is designed to support high table-update rates and to scale out horizontally in distributed compute clusters. Its focus on scale enables it to support very large database tables -- for example, ones containing billions of rows and millions of columns. Currently, one of the most prominent uses of HBase is as a structured data handler for Facebook basic messaging infrastructure.

HBase is known for providing strong data consistency on reads and writes, which distinguishes it from other NoSQL databases. Much like Hadoop, an important aspect of the HBase architecture is the use of master nodes to manage region servers that distribute and process parts of data tables.

HBase is part of a long list of Apache Hadoop add-ons that includes tools such as Hive, Pig and ZooKeeper. Like Hadoop, HBase is typically programmed using Java, not SQL. As an open source project, its development is managed by the Apache Software Foundation. HBase became a top-level Apache project in 2010..

Apache Hive

Apache Hive is an open-source data warehouse system for querying and analyzing large datasets stored in Hadoop files. Hadoop is a framework for handling large datasets in a distributed computing environment.

Hive has three main functions: data summarization, query and analysis. It supports queries expressed in a language called HiveQL, which automatically translates SQL-like queries into MapReduce jobs executed on Hadoop. In addition, HiveQL supports custom MapReduce scripts to be plugged into queries. Hive also enables data serialization/deserialization and increases flexibility in schema design by including a system catalog called Hive-Metastore.

According to the Apache Hive wiki, "Hive is not designed for OLTP workloads and does not offer real-time queries or row-level updates. It is best used for batch jobs over large sets of append-only data (like web logs)."

Hive supports text files (also called flat files), SequenceFiles (flat files consisting of binary key/value pairs) and RCFiles (Record Columnar Files which store columns of a table in a columnar database way.)

Apache Phoenix

Apache Phoenix is an open source, massively parallel, relational database engine supporting OLTP for Hadoop using Apache HBase as its backing store. Phoenix provides a JDBC driver that hides the intricacies of the noSQL store enabling users to create, delete, and alter SQL tables, views, indexes, and sequences; insert and delete rows singly and in bulk; and query data through SQL. Phoenix compiles queries and other statements into native noSQL store APIs rather than using MapReduce enabling the building of low latency applications on top of noSQL stores.

Apache Drill

Apache Drill is an open-source software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications for interactive analysis of large-scale datasets. Drill is the open source version of Googles Dremel system which is available as an infrastructure service called Google BigQuery. One explicitly stated design goal is that Drill is able to scale to 10,000 servers or more and to be able to process petabytes of data and trillions of records in seconds. Drill is an Apache top-level project.

Drill supports a variety of NoSQL databases and file systems, including HBase, MongoDB, MapR-DB, HDFS, MapR-FS, Amazon S3, Azure Blob Storage, Google Cloud Storage, Swift, NAS and local files. A single query can join data from multiple datastores. For example, you can join a user profile collection in MongoDB with a directory of event logs in Hadoop.

Drills datastore-aware optimizer automatically restructures a query plan to leverage the datastores internal processing capabilities. In addition, Drill supports data locality, if Drill and the datastore are on the same nodes

Apache Cassandra

Apache Cassandra is a free and open-source distributed NoSQL database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure. Cassandra offers robust support for clusters spanning multiple datacenters,[1] with asynchronous masterless replication allowing low latency operations for all clients.

Cassandra also places a high value on performance. In 2012, University of Toronto researchers studying NoSQL systems concluded that "In terms of scalability, there is a clear winner throughout our experiments. Cassandra achieves the highest throughput for the maximum number of nodes in all experiments" although "this comes at the price of high write and read latencies

Apache Accumulo

Apache Accumulo is a computer software project that developed a sorted, distributed key/value store based on the Bigtable technology from Google.[1] It is a system built on top of Apache Hadoop, Apache ZooKeeper, and Apache Thrift. Written in Java, Accumulo has cell-level access labels and server-side programming mechanisms. Accumulo is the third most popular NoSQL wide column store according to the DB-Engines ranking, behind Apache Cassandra and Hbase as of 2015.

Bloom filter

A Bloom filter is a space-efficient probabilistic data structure, conceived by Burton Howard Bloom in 1970, that is used to test whether an element is a member of a set. False positive matches are possible, but false negatives are not ? in other words, a query returns either "possibly in set" or "definitely not in set". Elements can be added to the set, but not removed (though this can be addressed with a "counting" filter); the more elements that are added to the set, the larger the probability of false positives.

Bloom proposed the technique for applications where the amount of source data would require an impractically large amount of memory if "conventional" error-free hashing techniques were applied. He gave the example of a hyphenation algorithm for a dictionary of 500,000 words, out of which 90% follow simple hyphenation rules, but the remaining 10% require expensive disk accesses to retrieve specific hyphenation patterns. With sufficient core memory, an error-free hash could be used to eliminate all unnecessary disk accesses; on the other hand, with limited core memory, Blooms technique uses a smaller hash area but still eliminates most unnecessary accesses. For example, a hash area only 15% of the size needed by an ideal error-free hash still eliminates 85% of the disk accesses ? an 85?15 form of the Pareto principle


MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating big data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster

A MapReduce program is composed of a Map() procedure (method) that performs filtering and sorting (such as sorting students by first name into queues, one queue for each name) and a Reduce() method that performs a summary operation (such as counting the number of students in each queue, yielding name frequencies). The "MapReduce System" (also called "infrastructure" or "framework") orchestrates the processing by marshalling the distributed servers, running the various tasks in parallel, managing all communications and data transfers between the various parts of the system, and providing for redundancy and fault tolerance

The model is a specialization of the split-apply-combine strategy for data analysis.[3] It is inspired by the map and reduce functions commonly used in functional programming,[4] although their purpose in the MapReduce framework is not the same as in their original forms.[5] The key contributions of the MapReduce framework are not the actual map and reduce functions (which, for example, resemble the 1995 Message Passing Interface standard [6] reduce[7] and scatter[8] operations), but the scalability and fault-tolerance achieved for a variety of applications by optimizing the execution engine. As such, a single-threaded implementation of MapReduce will usually not be faster than a traditional (non-MapReduce) implementation; any gains are usually only seen with multi-threaded implementations.[9] The use of this model is beneficial only when the optimized distributed shuffle operation (which reduces network communication cost) and fault tolerance features of the MapReduce framework come into play. Optimizing the communication cost is essential to a good MapReduce algorithm

MapReduce libraries have been written in many programming languages, with different levels of optimization. A popular open source implementation that has support for distributed shuffles is part of Apache Hadoop. The name MapReduce originally referred to the proprietary Google technology, but has since been genericized. By 2014, Google was no longer using MapReduce as their primary Big Data processing model,[11] and development on Apache Mahout had moved on to more capable and less disk-oriented mechanisms that incorporated full map and reduce capabilities

How will you add/delete a Node to the existing cluster?

A) Add: Add the host name/Ip address in dfs.hosts/slaves file and refresh the cluster with $hadoop dfsamin -refreshNodes

Delete: Add the hostname/Ip address to dfs.hosts.exclude/remove the entry from slaves file and refresh the cluster with $hadoop dfsamin -refreshNodes

What is SSH? What is the use of it In Hadoop?

Secure Shell.

How will you format the HDFS? How frequently it will be done?

A)$hadoop namnode -format.

How will you manage the Log files generated in Hadoop cluster?

A)$hadoop namnode -format.

Do you know about cron jobs? How will you Setup?

In Ubuntu, go to the terminal and type: $ crontab -e

this will open our personal crontab (cron configuration file), the first line in that file explains it all, In every line we can define one command to run, and the format is quite simple. So the structure is:

minute hour day-of-month month day-of-week command

For all the numbers you can use lists eg, 5,34,55 in the first field will mean run at 5 past 34 past and 55 past what ever hour is defined.

What is the role of /etc/hosts file in setting up of HDFS cluster?

For hostname to Ip address maping

If one of the data node is failed to start on the cluster how will you come to know? And what are the necessary actions to be taken now

Via HDFS web UI, we can see no of decommissioned nodes and we need to rebalance the cluster now

What is the impact if namenode fails and what are the necessary action items now?

Entire hdfs will be down and we need to restart the namenode after copying fsimage and edits from secondaryNN

How do we set logging level for hadoop daemons/commands?

In log4j.properties or in hadoop-env.sh file, hadoop.root.logger=INFO,console (WARN,DRFA)

Eng. Ravi Kumar Verma

Simple and dept learning technology is very important part in software development. Same story has been implemented at this site, so learn and implement the inovative things, Thanks

Ravi Kumar Verma