What is database?

A database is a collection of information that is organized. So that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.

What is DBMS?

DBMS stands for Database Management System. It is a collection of programs that enables user to create and maintain a database.

What is a Database system?

The database and DBMS software together is called as Database system.

What are the advantages of DBMS?

I. Redundancy is controlled.

II. Providing multiple user interfaces.

III. Providing backup and recovery

IV. Unauthorized access is restricted.

V. Enforcing integrity constraints.

What is normalization?

It is a process of analysing the given relation schemas based on their Functional Dependencies (FDs) and primary key to achieve the properties

(1).Minimizing redundancy,

(2). Minimizing insertion, deletion and update anomalies.

What is Data Model?

A collection of conceptual tools for describing data, data relationships data semantics and constraints.

What is E-R model?

This data model is based on real world that consists of basic objects called entities and of relationship among these objects. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes.

What is Object Oriented model?

This model is based on collection of objects. An object contains values stored in instance variables with in the object. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. These bodies of code are called methods. Objects that contain same types of values and the same methods are grouped together into classes.

What is an Entity?

An entity is a thing or object of importance about which data must be captured.

What is DDL (Data Definition Language)?

A data base schema is specifies by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called DDL.

What is DML (Data Manipulation Language)?

This language that enable user to access or manipulate data as organised by appropriate data model. Procedural DML or Low level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data. Non-Procedural DML or High level: DML requires a user to specify what data are needed without specifying how to get those data

What is DML Compiler?

It translates DML statements in a query language into low-level instruction that the query evaluation engine can understand.

What is Query evaluation engine?

It executes low-level instruction generated by compiler..

What is 1 NF (Normal Form)?

The first normal form or 1NF is the first and the simplest type of normalization that can be implemented in a database. The main aims of 1NF are to:

1. Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table.

2. Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column (the primary key).

What is Fully Functional dependency?

A functional dependency X Y is full functional dependency if removal of any attribute A from X means that the dependency does not hold any more.

What is 2NF?

A relation schema R is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and every non-prime attribute A in R is fully functionally dependent on primary key.

What is 3NF?

A relation is in third normal form if it is in Second Normal Form and there are no functional (transitive) dependencies between two (or more) non-primary key attributes.

What is BCNF (Boyce-Codd Normal Form)?

A table is in Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF) if and only if it is in 3NF and every determinant is a candidate key.

What is 4NF?

Fourth normal form requires that a table be BCNF and contain no multi-valued dependencies.

What is a query?

A query with respect to DBMS relates to user commands that are used to interact with a data base.

What is meant by query optimization?

The phase that identifies an efficient execution plan for evaluating a query that has the least estimated cost is referred to as query optimization..

What do you mean by atomicity and aggregation?

Atomicity-Atomicity states that database modifications must follow an all or nothing rule. Each transaction is said to be atomic. If one part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails.

Aggregation - A feature of the entity relationship model that allows a relationship set to participate in another relationship set. This is indicated on an ER diagram by drawing a dashed box around the aggregation.


Two important pieces of RDBMS architecture are the kernel, which is the software, and the data dictionary, which consists of the system- level data structures used by the kernel to manage the database..

Eng. Ravi Kumar Verma

Simple and dept learning technology is very important part in software development. Same story has been implemented at this site, so learn and implement the inovative things, Thanks

Ravi Kumar Verma